Papilloma: causes, varieties

Human papillomavirus

Papilloma refers to benign formations, the spread of which can occur both on the surface of the skin and on the mucous membranes. Any kind of papillomas is provoked by the penetration of the virus into the human body, but in order to notice the first manifestations from the moment of infection, it may take more than one year.

Human papilloma

There may be several reasons for the appearance of papillomas, but the main way to get infected is sexual contact. In addition, the virus can be transmitted through kissing, household items and handshakes. If there are injuries on the surface of the skin or mucous membranes, then the pathogen will easily penetrate the body, for example, swimming pools, saunas and baths are dangerous sources.

After infection, the incubation period lasts about 3 months, while there are no symptoms - at this stage it is difficult to diagnose the disease.

The main factors that can trigger the onset of the disease include:

  • decreased immune system;
  • smoking;
  • promiscuous sexual intercourse;
  • stressful situations;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • early onset of sexual activity;
  • violation of metabolic processes;
  • diseases of the digestive tract, in particular ulcers and gastritis;
  • gynecological diseases: trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, thrush, ureaplasmosis;
  • frequent visits to baths, saunas and pools;
  • sexual intercourse with an infected human papillomavirus.

Often, when taking hormonal drugs, including birth control pills, contributed to changes in hormonal levels, which could serve as one of the factors provoking the disease.

Common Symptoms

This pathological process does not have symptoms as such - it all depends on the type and localization of the formations. One of the signs of HPV is the appearance of warts or genital warts on the skin. Such signs cannot be ignored, since HPV belongs to oncogenic diseases.

In addition to skin lesions, other signs may sometimes appear:

  • peeling of the skin;
  • itching;
  • redness of the skin area;
  • tingling sensation;
  • discomfort in the area of localization.

The formations that appear may differ by several tones from the color of the skin. In most cases, papillomas do not cause physical discomfort, but they can still be morally and aesthetically uncomfortable.

Varieties of papillomas

Papillomas are divided into several types:

  • plantar;
  • flat;
  • simple;
  • threadlike;
  • spiky.

Flat papillomas

Flat papillomas are formations that protrude slightly above the skin, only 1-2 mm. The shape of flat papillomas can be oval, rounded, most often elongated. The main place of localization of this type of formation is the skin of the face, the upper part of the chest, the area of the lips, and the external genitals. In women, flat papillomas can be diagnosed with a gynecological examination of the cervix.

When the formations are located too close to each other, they tend to merge with each other, which leads to the fact that they become quite noticeable. The color of such formations may be slightly darker than the skin tone or not differ at all.


This type of papillomas is often confused with calluses, but there are still several symptoms that indicate the presence of plantar papillomas. These include:

  1. There is no pattern on the damaged skin. As a rule, corn has a smooth surface and skin pattern.
  2. There is pain when the shoes press on the papilloma.
  3. Papilloma is externally characterized by a vulgar formation.

Plantar papillomas are very often observed in young children, this type lends itself to self-destruction. After the appearance of the first nodule, small bubbles form, which later turn into papillomas, this formation process is called mosaic papillomatosis.


Simple condylomas are divided into ordinary and vulgar. This type appears when infected with HPV types 26-29, 41, 36 and 77. Vulgar papillomas are benign formations and most often have their own manifestation. The precursors of the appearance of such formations are a slight tingling and burning sensation in a certain area of the skin, subsequently a small rounded nodule appears in this place. Then the surface of the formation begins to peel off, the color acquires darker shades. Simple papillomas can range in size from 1 to 10 mm.

Most often, this type of formation is localized on the back of the palms, between the fingers and on the fingers themselves. Very often, simple papillomas are diagnosed in children in the knee area, this arrangement is due to the fact that children at a young age move directly on their knees, as a result of which cracks form through which infection occurs.


Genital warts are papillary formations, the location of which can occur in a group or separately. With the progression of growth, this type of genital warts often lends itself to merging with each other, which leads to the appearance of a comb-like surface. The color of the pointed formations may not differ in any way from the skin tone, and also have a bright pink color.

Genital warts appear as a result of HPV infection transmitted through sexual contact. Therefore, most often the localization of such formations occurs in the perineum, genitals, anus and groin. When HPV is infected in men, the genital organ inside the urethra is affected, as well as the penis itself; in women, the cervix and vagina can be affected.

Pointed papillomas are characterized by rapid growth, while fusion between themselves and damage to healthy areas of the skin can occur in just a few days. After treatment of this type, relapses often occur. When diagnosing a disease, infections such as chlamydia and mycoplasmosis can be detected in parallel.


Filiform warts are localized in areas of thin skin and are an elongated and elongated formation. This form of papilloma is caused by HPV types 2 and 7. At the beginning of the formation of the formation, a small lump appears on the skin, which after a while stretches and hangs down.

Filiform papillomas are most often affected by men and women over 40 years of age. Their localization occurs in the groin and axillary region, neck and upper eyelids. Such formations are very thin, so they are often injured by movements or clothing.


Papillomas can appear on absolutely any part of the skin, but the most inconvenience is the formations that appear on the face, as well as in places subject to strong friction by hard clothing. Depending on the structure of the skin and the characteristics of the virus, there are several areas of the body where the appearance of formations most often occurs:

  • on the feet;
  • the surface of the skin of the face, hands, abdomen, back, neck area;
  • internal organs: intestines, esophagus, stomach, bladder;
  • genitals;
  • in the folds of the body: folds of the abdomen with existing excess weight, in the armpits, under the mammary gland, in the groin.

Sometimes papillomas can be found on the mucous membrane of the mouth, in the ducts of the chest and internal genital organs. When growths appear on the throat, it can lead to respiratory failure due to the narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory canal.

Papilloma in the throat

The appearance of papilloma on the mucous membrane of the throat is a pathological process that does not have symptoms. It is very rare for the patient to experience discomfort or any signs. But as the formations grow, the following symptoms may appear:

  • unpleasant and painful sensations in the throat;
  • a feeling of being in the throat of a foreign body;
  • oppressed swallowing, both solid and liquid food.

As the infection progresses, papillomas begin to fill an increasing area in the throat, which can sometimes lead to voice changes and shortness of breath.

The reasons for the appearance of genital warts in the throat can be frequent smoking, infectious diseases in childhood, frequent changes in sexual partners and chronic diseases. Also, frequent visits to public places (swimming pools and baths) and reduced immunity can become the reasons for the development of infection.

Treatment of genital warts of such localization can occur medically with the use of antiviral and vitamin preparations. The presence of papillomas in the mouth requires surgical treatment, as this can lead to the spread of infection throughout the body.

Human papillomavirus in women

HPV in women can be localized on the chest, external and internal genitals. Papillomas on the cervix are warty formations with indistinct edges. This pathological process can be considered as an oncogenic factor, and if not treated promptly, cervical cancer can develop.

The main reasons for the appearance of genital warts on the cervix include:

  • frequent use of drugs and alcohol;
  • non-compliance with hygiene rules;
  • reduced immunity;
  • having sex with an HPV carrier.

In addition, infection can occur in a public place, as well as during childbirth from mother to child.

Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, burning of the vulva, and uncharacteristic green or brown discharge, sometimes accompanied by an unpleasant odor.

For treatment, doctors use local and drug therapy. Papillomas on the genitals can be localized not only in women, but also in men, the only difference is that in men, HPV is rarely oncogenic.

Breast papilloma

Breast papilloma develops in the milk duct. When these pathological processes appear, a woman may notice the following signs:

  • burning and itching sensations;
  • the appearance of redness on the nipple;
  • brown or green discharge may appear from the nipple;
  • when pressing, soreness of the chest is felt, and spotting may also appear.

Intraductal warts do not belong to malignant formations, but with pathological changes and untimely treatment, the disease can acquire a malignant form, which sometimes becomes the cause of the development of breast cancer.

Such a formation is a nipple-shaped process, the color of which is significantly different from the skin tone. The main factors that can affect the development of breast papilloma are:

  • reduced immune system;
  • the presence of infectious diseases;
  • disruption of the ovaries;
  • obesity, impaired metabolic processes;
  • abortion.

Intraductal papillomas are susceptible to women with bad habits, often changing sexual partners, as well as nulliparous. Treatment of papilloma occurs only by surgery, since this condition is regarded as precancerous and it is inappropriate to carry out drug treatment. Surgical treatment does not leave highly visible scars on the breast surface. There are no preventive measures against such a disease, therefore it is necessary to be examined by a gynecologist and mammologist as often as possible, at least 2 times a year.

Papilloma on the tongue

Condylomas in the tongue are papillary formations up to several centimeters. The main causes of infection are household items, and also transmitted from close contact with a patient with HPV. Such localization of papillomas can even be in children, since they often pull objects and toys into their mouths, while most often the baby has a reduced immunity.

Such localization of papilloma requires surgical treatment, after which antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs are prescribed.

Papilloma treatment

The following methods are used to treat skin areas affected by warts:

  1. Laser radiation is one of the popular methods for removing formations and is safe for treating women during pregnancy.
  2. High-frequency radiation or electrocautery is used in diathermocoagulation.
  3. Use of radio waves for coagulation. With this method, papillomas are removed using a radio wave knife.
  4. Cryodestruction - removal of formations occurs due to their freezing with liquid nitrogen.
  5. Surgical - removal of papillomas occurs with a scalpel, which allows you to excise a large area of the lesion.

In order to cure the disease, to eliminate the source of infection is not enough, an integrated approach is needed, which includes antiviral agents and drugs that strengthen the immune system.

Medicines aimed at fighting viruses help prevent relapse and also reduce the risk of cancer. The use of immunomodulators, minerals and vitamins will be complementary to HPV treatment. Modern drugs cannot completely destroy the virus in the body, but they can stop the development of the disease and put it into a "dormant" state.

It is important to remember that treatment should only be carried out by a qualified doctor; self-administration of drugs is strictly prohibited.

Human papillomavirus: treatment

Most often, HPV is treated surgically using various techniques. After examining the patient, the doctor prescribes a removal method, which depends on the location of the formation, the presence of a leg, the number and size. At the same time, the patient is prescribed a number of drugs:

  • to enhance immunity;
  • vitamins;
  • antiviral drugs.

Treatment with drugs can occur repeatedly, based on test results. The goal of drug therapy is to stop HPV activity.

HPV treatment in women

There is no specific tactic for treating papillomas in women. Disposal of formations should take place only under the supervision of a specialist who will give accompanying recommendations for further treatment and methods of prevention. It is very rare when this pathological process goes away on its own and does not return again. Sometimes, even with an integrated approach, it is not possible to completely recover from this disease. Papillomas are characterized by frequent relapses, so doctors recommend such patients to carry out antiviral therapy several times a year.

Removal of papillomas with a laser

One of the popular and safe ways to remove genital warts is to use a laser. During the procedure, the doctor uses a laser to act on the surface of the tumor, cauterizing it. This method allows not only to destroy the affected skin surface, but also to prevent bleeding. After using the laser, patients do not experience any side effects and complications, and, importantly, no scars remain on the body.

Using a laser, it is possible to remove an infected surface area of any depth, therapy allows you to immediately get rid of single and confluent papillomas. This method is indicated when diagnosing papillomatosis of the cervix. After the procedure, the rehabilitation period can be about a month.


There are no specific preventive measures against HPV, but some measures can help reduce the risk of the disease re-developing. First of all, you need to follow the rules of personal hygiene, if there are cuts, treat them in a timely manner. You must use only your own hygiene items: shoes, towel, combs, manicure device, etc. Use condoms during sexual intercourse, especially if it concerns unverified sexual partners. After this, it is necessary to carefully carry out the toilet of the external genital organs.