Why do papillomas occur and how to treat them?

Papillomas are benign papillary formations on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes. The cause is human papillomavirus (HPV), which infects most of the world's population. Growths can appear on any part of the body, including intimate places, internal organs.

professional removal of papillomas on the body

What causes papillomas?

The disease is sexually transmitted in 50% of cases, but for a long time it may not manifest itself in any way. Clinical symptoms are observed with a weakening of the body's immune defense, which is caused by colds, inflammatory, concomitant chronic ailments of internal organs.

Papillomas on the body appear most often in adolescence, which coincides with the onset of sexual activity. In young people, the reason may be a frequent change of sexual partners, anal sex. In intimate areas, growths usually form within 1–2 months after an unprotected act.

Papillomas in women are much more common than in men. Benign formations can occur in the anogenital region and on the mucous membranes of the vagina, cervix. This often becomes the cause of the appearance of cancer of the reproductive organs. Due to weak immunity, young children are susceptible to HPV infection; the virus is transmitted from infected parents through close household contact.

Often, overweight patients ask a dermatologist a question: why do papillomas appear on the body? In overweight people, signs of the disease are diagnosed especially often. The reason is metabolic disorders in the body. The growths are localized mainly in the skin folds of the armpits, groin, under the mammary glands, on the neck, eyelids and face.

Why do papillomas appear on the body, where do they come from?

After entering the blood, the papilloma virus begins to actively multiply, affecting the upper layers of the skin. If the immunity is strong enough, the external manifestation of the infection may not be observed for a long time. But when favorable conditions are created, pathological proliferation of epithelial cells occurs.

The incubation period does not exceed 3 months, but in some cases the latent course of the disease lasts up to 2 years. The provoking causes of the appearance of papillomas on the body are flu, poisoning, severe stress, acute inflammatory disease, pregnancy, adolescence.

The main routes of HPV infection:

  • From a sick mother to a child while passing through the birth canal. This happens if a woman has papillomas in intimate places. The pathogen can also get to the baby in breast milk.
  • Sexually, the disease is transmitted from an infected partner to a healthy one. Reduce the risk of using a condom. But in the case of localization of growths in the perineum or anus, contraception is ineffective.
  • The household route of infection occurs through a common towel, hygiene items. Thus, the virus enters the child's body.
  • Self-infection is observed when a benign formation is damaged by a razor or tight clothing. The growths appear in other places in greater numbers.

Types and external signs of papillomas

There are more than a hundred varieties of the manifestation of the virus, depending on the type of pathogen:

  1. Genital warts genitaloccur on the external genitals, in the anus, perineum in men and women. They have a peculiar shape, reminiscent of a rooster's comb or cauliflower. Formations are multiple, cause itching and discomfort. In rare cases, anogenital warts are localized on the mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue, lips.
  2. Simple wartshave a rounded shape, most often they affect the limbs. Usually there are many papillomas, the rash lasts for 6-8 months, then it can go away on its own without any treatment.
  3. Flat or juvenile wartsoccur in adolescents during puberty against the background of hormonal changes in the body. Usually such papillomas are localized on the face, neck, fingers and toes from the back. The growths are flat, light pink or beige, painless.
  4. Filiform warts or acrochords- these are formations of an elongated shape of light pink or brownish color. Most often appear in women under the mammary glands, on the neck, eyelids, face and groin, armpits.
  5. Plantar wartslocalized on the soles of the feet and the inner side of the hands. The growths cause itching, discomfort while walking. Such a papilloma looks like a rounded formation, similar to a corn. In the center - black dots, along the edges - a roller of keratinized skin.
  6. Oncogenic papipillomaviruseshuman cause the development of cancer of the larynx and reproductive organs in women.

Treatment of papillomas on the face and body

In most cases, skin growths do not cause discomfort and do not require treatment. Exceptions include formations that are permanently injured and are cosmetic defects.

The HPV virus cannot be completely cured, but supportive therapy avoids the appearance of skin growths. It is useful for an infected person to adhere to a proper diet, play sports, carry out wellness procedures and give up bad habits.

To begin with, it is better to treat the papilloma virus with topical preparations.

If, after taking the drugs, no positive changes are observed, the growths are removed surgically. But without preliminary general strengthening therapy, such a procedure is ineffective, since relapses can occur. First, you need to undergo a course of treatment to increase the body's immune defenses. The patient is taking immunomodulators, a vitamin complex, antiviral and cytotoxic drugs. In the presence of concomitant diseases, the focus of inflammation should be cured.

types of papillomas on the human body

Surgical treatment

It is necessary to treat the pathology surgically if the diameter of the papilloma exceeds 1 cm, if a cancerous tumor is suspected. The doctor removes the build-up along with a small amount of surrounding tissue. Then cosmetic stitches are applied.

Alternative methods of treating papillomas on the face and body are:

  • Cryodestruction- this is the effect on the neoplasm with low temperatures (-196 °). The procedure is painless and does not require the administration of anesthetics. After treatment with liquid nitrogen, the build-up turns white, then a blister forms in its place. Gradually, pathological cells die off. This method helps to treat papillomas on the neck, eyelids, intimate areas and other areas with sensitive skin.
  • Electrocoagulation- this is the effect of high-frequency currents on the affected area. A special ring is put on a narrow leg or base of the growth, which cauterizes the tissue. After that, the papilloma is easily removed. No bleeding occurs.
  • Laser removalis the least traumatic treatment. The affected area is exposed to a carbon dioxide beam, the liquid evaporates, the tissues become dehydrated, dry out and turn into a dark crust, which falls off after a week. When removing papillomas on the eyelids and face, it is necessary to avoid exposure to ultraviolet rays on the skin, otherwise pigmentation may occur.
  • Radiosurgical treatmentperformed using a special apparatus. The method of therapy is similar to laser moxibustion, only in this case a radio knife is used. After removal, no scars remain.
  • Chemical destruction methodcarried out by applying organic acids to the surface of the papilloma, which destroy the structure of pathological cells.
cryodestruction as a method of removing papillomas

With a low pain threshold or a large growth size, local anesthesia is used. After the operation, the patient must follow the doctor's recommendations and carry out a disinfectant treatment. The excised papilloma is sent for histological examination to exclude the presence of cancer cells.

Relapses after surgical treatment occur if the affected area has not been completely treated. In this case, the build-up appears again.

Removal of genital warts

Before the procedure, a person must pass a biochemical blood test for the presence of antibodies to the HPV virus, smears for urogenital infections, tissue biopsy. Based on the research results, the doctor selects the best treatment option.

Anogenital warts are removed in the same way as papillomas on the neck and face. These are cryodestruction, laser radiation, electrocoagulation, radio wave therapy, chemical destruction.

Treating papillomas in the intimate area is recommended for all patients, as they can infect their partner with the virus. And growths in the vagina and in the cervical region in women require urgent excision, because they can cause cancer.

electrocoagulation as a way to remove papillomas

Prevention of human HPV

The only way to prevent papillomavirus is vaccination. In some countries, such a measure is included in the list of mandatory vaccinations, in others, the procedure is carried out at the request of the patient.

Vaccine injections are made in 3 stages, with an interval of 1 month and six months after the first injection. Scientific studies have confirmed the effectiveness of this method, which allows you to eliminate the causes of the appearance of benign lesions on the skin.

Additional preventive measures include protected sexual intercourse, careful choice of a sexual partner, strengthening immunity, improving the body, using personal hygiene items, and timely treatment of infectious diseases.

A dermatologist will be able to answer the question of why papillomas grow and how they should be treated. The doctor will conduct an examination, prescribe laboratory tests and select the necessary therapy regimen.