Papillomas on the body appear as a result of human papillomavirus infection. By adulthood, human papillomavirus (HPV) can be found in most people. It is in an inactive phase. But under the influence of predisposing factors, as a result of damage to the skin, HPV is activated and characteristic papillomatous outgrowths appear. Many of them are not dangerous and are only a cosmetic defect. But it is extremely important to determine why papillomas appear on the body and whether they are associated with an oncological process.
Some HPV strains cause malignant tissue hyperplasia. Due to the risk of growth of oncological neoplasms, regardless of the cause of the appearance of papillomas on the body, treatment is carried out mainly by surgical methods. If skin growths appear, you must first consult a dermatologist. If neoplasms are found in the genital area, visit a venereologist. A specialist can determine exactly what causes papillomas on the body and mucous membranes, identify the HPV strain and determine the oncogenic risk.
What papillomas can appear on the body
Externally, the papilloma resembles a horny outgrowth extending beyond the upper layer of the skin. The neoplasm often has a thin stem. Papillomas on the body can be single or located in groups. They look like a mushroom. Their color is only slightly different from that of healthy skin. Papillomas on the body and in the photo are often different. There are many images of neoplasms on the network that are worth studying in order to at least roughly understand whether or not to go to the doctor. From the photo you can see how papillomas look on the body, and how - for example, moles or melanomas. But only a doctor can make an accurate diagnosis.
Common types of papillomas on the body:
- simple or vulgar - they look like rounded nodules that most often appear on the hands, are located in groups, are detected mainly in childhood;
- flat or youthful - slightly raised papules have a smooth surface, appear on the skin of the limbs or mucous membranes;
- plantar - look like dense nodules, which are covered with a keratinized crust on top, can cause painful sensations while walking;
- threadlike - small flesh-colored outgrowths of a longitudinal shape, more often appear in old age on the skin of the neck, on the face, can be damaged during hygiene procedures and become inflamed;
- genital warts - this type of warts is the most dangerous, as it is provoked by HPV strains of high oncogenic risk, outwardly neoplasms resemble an accumulation of cauliflower, they appear in the perineum, on the genitals of men and women, and can affect the bladder and cervix.
Common causes of papillomas on the body
The main reason for the appearance of papillomas on the body is the entry of the papillomavirus through minor skin lesions or self-infection during shaving and daily hygiene procedures.
The following factors can provoke the growth of papillomatous neoplasms:
- promiscuous intimate life;
- acute and chronic urogenital infections, genital warts on the genitals and skin of the perineum;
- hormonal disorders;
- strong decrease in immunity;
- constant trauma to the skin and mucous membranes.
Most often, people with papillomas on the body have a chronic course of papillomatous infection. For a long time, the virus remains unnoticed. After a decrease in immunity, HPV is activated. Severe infectious diseases, previous operations, radiation treatment, work in unfavorable conditions, constant stress, intense physical and psycho-emotional stress, poor-quality diet with a low content of vitamins and minerals can provoke a weakening of the immune defense.
The causes of papillomas on the body in women are often associated with hormonal changes in the body during menopause or pregnancy. Fluctuations in the ratio of sex hormones create favorable conditions for active reproduction of HPV and tissue hyperplasia. At risk are women with genital warts, which are transmitted mainly through intimate contact with a carrier of genital warts.
Cancer of the cervix and papillomas on the body
The main danger of papillomas on the body is the risk of malignancy of neoplasms. In women, papillomatous outgrowths can cause a formidable disease - cervical cancer. 16 and 18 types of HPV are responsible for this pathology. According to statistics, more than 500 thousand women of working age around the world are diagnosed with cervical cancer every year. Half of them seek medical help at the last stages of the disease, when it can be quite difficult to help them recover completely. Every woman should know what the human papillomavirus is, how it gets into the human body and how she can protect herself from malignant cervical hyperplasia.
When papillomas appear on the body, it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive diagnosis, to identify possible concomitant urogenital infections. HPV can cause hyperplasia of the cervical lining. If a woman does not conduct preventive examinations for a long time, she will not find out about the presence of papillomas on the genitals and may miss the growth of a malignant formation.
If papillomas are found on the body, it is recommended to conduct the following examinations:
- typing a virus using PCR diagnostics;
- taking swabs from the cervix and foreskin in men;
- immunological analysis;
- blood tests for sexually transmitted infections;
- biopsy, cytology and tissue histology.
An integrated approach to the examination allows us to assess all possible risks of the disease and understand how to treat papillomas on the body in order to completely get rid of neoplasms and prevent their recurrence in the future.
Important! HPV has virtually no symptoms. The neoplasm does not manifest itself for a long time. Small outgrowths on the skin do not cause discomfort, but if injured, they can become inflamed and malignant.
But even ordinary papillomas on the body can be dangerous if they are often injured and exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Such neoplasms must be removed in time in order to prevent tissue magnetization under the influence of age-related changes and unfavorable environmental factors.
How papillomavirus spreads
The main route of HPV spread is through intimate relationships, including oral and anal contacts. Often, papillomavirus is diagnosed against the background of acute and chronic sexually transmitted infections, in persons who enter into close relationships with different partners.
But papillomavirus can enter the body through close household contacts, damaged skin and mucous membranes. Newborn babies can become infected from a mother who is a carrier of genital warts, a form of human papillomavirus infection. The child becomes infected when passing through the birth canal of a woman. HPV affects the skin and mucous membranes, causing the appearance of both common warts, papillomas, and genital warts.
The strength of the immune system plays a huge role in the development of HPV. The weaker the immune system, the higher a person's risk of contracting human papillomavirus infection. Patients with diabetes mellitus, hormonal disorders, a weakened body, pregnant women and children, as well as people with chronic urogenital infections are especially vulnerable.
Principles of treating papillomas on the body
Drug therapy includes the appointment of antiviral drugs that suppress the active multiplication of HPV. But such funds are often used as part of complex treatment, before or after minimally invasive removal of papillomas. Special antiviral drugs slow down the reproduction of the papillomavirus and significantly reduce the risk of recurrence of the disease in the future.
The earlier therapy is started, the lower the risk of tissue malignancy. The ideal time for treatment is the first months after the appearance of neoplasms. The therapeutic course also includes the use of immunostimulating agents that support the activity of the immune system and prevent frequent exacerbations of the disease. The recurrent course of human papillomavirus infection can be accompanied by the formation of papillomas not only on the body, but also on the genitals, inside the urinary organs, on the oral mucosa. This course of the disease is typical for people who have undergone complex surgical interventions, prolonged infectious diseases, hormonal disorders.
Surgical removal of papillomas on the body
Surgical treatment of papillomas on the body is a classic option that is most suitable for most patients. After examining and obtaining diagnostic data, the doctor chooses the appropriate method for removing the neoplasms.
Main indications for removal of papillomas on the body:
- active growth of papillomatous outgrowths;
- the appearance of neoplasms in places where they are often damaged and inflamed;
- chronic course of human papillomavirus infection, regular exacerbations;
- high oncogenic risk, history of a predisposition to malignant neoplasms;
- the appearance of soreness in the area of papillomas, changes in the color and shape of neoplasms.
Expectant tactics are practiced by specialists when papillomas appear during pregnancy and during breastfeeding. Often, papillomatous outgrowths disappear on their own immediately after childbirth and the restoration of hormonal levels in a woman.
Ways to remove papillomas on the body
Minimally invasive methods of removing papillomas on the body allow you to get rid of neoplasms almost bloodlessly, preserve most of the healthy skin. If there is no risk of tissue malignancy, the following surgical methods can be used:
- radio wave therapy (removal of genital warts with a radio knife);
- cryodestruction (burning warts with low-temperature liquid nitrogen);
- laser coagulation (vaporization of pathological neoplasms with a laser);
- electrocoagulation (application of high-frequency current).
Classical surgical excision with a scalpel is used for large tissue lesions and severe papillomatosis. But experts, if possible, give preference to minimally invasive methods of treatment. Most often, papillomas on the body are removed using a laser. This method is characterized by minimal damage, does not leave scars and spots on the skin. The laser has an anti-inflammatory effect, which allows minimally invasive operations with minimal risk of secondary infection.
It is also possible to use a radio wave device, which removes neoplasms without contact under local anesthesia. Under the action of high-frequency radio waves, the structures of the neoplasm are destroyed and pathological tissues evaporate, their coagulation occurs - a kind of "sealing", which prevents bleeding from the wound.
Treatment of papillomas with cryodestruction is widespread. The technique is based on the use of liquid nitrogen, which freezes all layers of the neoplasm, after which the papilloma disappears, and in its place after a few months there will be nothing but an imperceptible small speck. Electrocoagulation is used to remove single papillomas. With a loop of an electrocoagulator, the doctor cuts off the papilloma leg, burns out its base and seals the tissue to prevent bleeding.
Surgical methods of getting rid of genital warts and warts are used only in a medical institution. For the prevention of recurrence of papillomas, antiviral therapy is prescribed. Also, people with papillomas are advised to periodically visit specialists and take tests. Women who have had papillomas removed, especially in the genital area, should have smears and other laboratory tests 2-3 times a year.